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怎样听记VOA中出现的数字

时间 : 2012-05-04 21:34来源 : VOA官网 收听下载次数 :

Easyvoa这里主要谈四位以上的数字和带小数点的百分数的听记问题。

 

在收听VOA官网英语广播的过程中,听众时常会碰到许多数字,这是我国英语学习者的一大难关,四位数以上的数字更是如此。原因是英汉两种语言的计数单位不完全一样。它们的最大区别是:汉语中有“万”和“亿”这两个计数单位,英语没有;而英语的million(百万)和billion(十亿)这两个计数单位,汉语里却是在它们的前面加上十,百,千而构成的复合计数单位,于是形成了英汉数字的不同表示法。

 

英汉两种语言的计数单位是不一致的,英语每四位数,汉语每五位数要变更其计数单位的名称,这就形成了四位以上数字的不同表示法。这些不同的表示法给英语学习者,尤其是给来辨别数量单位并接受信息的英语广播听众带来了很大的困难。

 

怎样才能克服这一困难,做到准确无误地听记英语新闻中出现的数字呢?根据我们的收听实践,发现采取以下步骤,比较容易听记:

 

1)根据美国英语中每逢四位数就要变更计数单位的规则,记数时采用国际习惯每隔三位数用一逗号分开,即1,000以上的数:先从后向前数,每三位数加一“,”,第一个“,”号前为thousand,第二个“,”号前为million,第三个“,”号前为billion(在英国英语国家中为thousand million),然后一节一节表示。例如:123,456,895,167,读成one hundred (and) twenty three billion four hundred (and) fifty-six million eight hundred (and) ninety-five thousand one hundred and sixty-seven.从这一读法中不难看出:除了trillion,billion,和million外,其他数字都是百、十、个的反复使用。

 

2)以trillion,billion,million和thousand为中心,收听时集中注意力听清楚是多少个trillion,多少个billion,多少个million和多少个thousand,及时记下并在它们的后面分别用“,”分开,没有具体数字的就打上“0”。当然trillion的前面还有一些更大的计数词,其规律都是一样的。

 

3)注意数字的书写表达方法。一般说来,英语数字的书写方法有以下三种:

 

(1)如果数字能用一个单独单词来表达,就直接写出该单词。如:“一”、“九”、“十五”、“八十”就分别写作one,nine,fifteen和eighty。

 

(2)如果数字要用一个复合数词或几个数词来表达,如:“二十一”、“九十九”、“一百零一”、“一千八百七十六”等等,通常就写出阿拉伯数字“21”、“99”、“101”、“1,876”等等。

 

如果数字是比较大的整数,常常要用阿拉伯数字加英语单词一起来表达。如“一百六十万”、“四十五亿”就写成“1.6 million”和“4.5 billion”等等。

 

另外,还有一些数字可以有两种读法。例如:

 

1,000可读作one thousand或ten hundred,

4,500可读作four thousand five hundred或forty-five hundred,

 

在VOA的英语广播中,如果数字达到或超过了billion,Special English和Standard English 的读法通常都不一样。如:The Chinese News Agency says China’s population has grown to 1,031,882,511 persons. (St.) Standard English的播音员将这一数字读作one billion thirty-one million eight hundred eighty-two thousand five hundred eleven。而Special English的播音员将这一数字读作one thousand thirty-one million。又如:World Bank President A. W. Clausen says the bank will lend China 1,000,000,000 next year. (St.) Standard English的播音员将这一数字读作one billion,而Special English的播音员将这一数字读作one thousand million,这一读法避免了使用billion这一没有被VOA Special English Wordbook收进的难词。

 

数字中的另一难点是带有小数点的百分数,我们常常在经济、金融和其他涉及较精确的百分比的新闻中遇到。这些数字,特别是百分之零点几的数字的读法比较难懂,有的有几种读法,在一般的辞书和语法书中很难找到满意的答案。现根据录音材料,从这摘录一些含有这些数字的典型单句,按一定的规律排列如下,供读者参考:

 

The report noted that the slowdown is less than the four and one half per cent (4.5%) drop in such economic activity during the last three months of 1981.

The second largest bank in the United States, the city Bank of New York, has raised its prime interest rates to sixteen and one half per cent (16.5%).

He (World Bank President A. W. Claysen) praised China’s economic progress in the last two years, noting the Chinese economy has grown almost seven point five per cent (7.5%) in the time of world recession.

The Labor Department said almost 11 million Americans were out of work, about nine point eight per cent (9.8%) of the work force.  

Almost 10 million persons in the US were unemployed in March. That means nine per cent (9%) of the American labor forces was out of work, and increase of two tenths of one per cent (0.2%) over February’s rate.

Consumer prices in the US increased by only two tenths of one per cent (0.2%) in February.

Producer prices in the United States increased by one tenth of one per cent (0.1%) in April, the first rise since January. Government economists say producer prices rose at yealy rate of only four tenths of one per cent (0.4%) during the first four months of this year.

The Labor Department reports that producer prices increased by only one half of one per cent (0.5%) in October.

The Federal Reserve Board says industrial production dropped eight tenths of one per cent (0.8%) in October.

The Labor Department reports the prices in the US lowered only six tenths of one per cent (0.6%) last month. Prices has risen one fourth per cent (0.25%) in May and June.

The World has a huge supply of fresh water, rivers, rain water, lakes and underground wells. But experts say that only abut one third of one per cent (0.3% or 1/3%) of the world’s total water supply is naturally safe for drinking.

 

总的来说,英语数字的听记是英语学习者的一大难点,除了掌握一定的规律和技巧外,必须通过大量的听说读写训练,才能达到比较迅速而准确的目的。