英语语法:简化修饰名词的从句 (45)

时间 : 2012-05-19 13:59来源 : VOA官网 收听下载次数 :
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在这一课里, 我们学习怎么样简化用来修饰名词的从句, 比方 "唱歌的人" the man who is singing 可以简化为 the man singing; "他唱的歌" the song which was sung by him 可以简化为 the song sung by him. 另外我们还要学习一些跟音乐有关系的词汇.

现在我们先来听今天这一课的对话, 内容是说亨利跟小女儿琳达谈起了听流行歌曲的事情. 请你注意听两位英文老师的发音和语调.

M: Linda, turn down the record player. I'm trying to read.
F: That's my new record, Dad. Don't you like it?
M: The man singing, is he the one who won all the music awards?
F: Yes, he is also the one singing in the movie we saw last night on T.V.
M: Well, I'm not too fond of his songs. He doesn't sing about meaningful things.
F: He does! You just don't listen to his songs.
M: You play them so loudly. Anyone not listening must be deaf.
F: Okey, Dad. I'll turn down the record player.

现在我们再把整段对话听一遍. 请你特别注意听.

M: Linda, turn down the record player. I'm trying to read.
F: That's my new record, Dad. Don't you like it?
M: The man singing, is he the one who won all the music awards?
F: Yes, he is also the one singing in the movie we saw last night on T.V.
M: Well, I'm not too fond of his songs. He doesn't sing about meaningful things.
F: He does! You just don't listen to them.
M: You play them so loudly. Anyone not listening must be deaf.
F: Okey, Dad. I'll turn down the record player.

现在我们把对话里包含了我们今天要学的语法的词组挑出来,再念一遍给你听.

M: the man singing
F: the one singing in the movie
M: anyone not listening

二.简化用来修饰名词的从句

听到这儿,我想你对怎么简化从句已经有点儿概念. 现在我请英文老师再念一些句子进一步作比较.首先男老师念两个句子,比方:The man asks Linda to turn down the record player. He is Henry. 女老师就把两个句子合并成一句:The man who asks Linda to turn down the record player is Henry. 然后女老师再用动词加上 i-n-g 把从句加以简化,所以整个句子就变成: The man asking Linda to turn down the record player is Henry. 老师念句子的时候请你注意听.

M: The girl is listening to the record. She is Linda.
F: The girl who is listening to the record is Linda.
F: The girl listening to the record is Linda.
M: The man is talking to Linda. He is her father.
F: The man who is talking to Linda is her father.
F: The man talking to Linda is her father.
M: The man asks Linda to turn down the record player. He is Henry.
F: The man who asks Linda to turn down the record player is Henry.
F: The man asking Linda to turn down the record player is Henry.
M: The man is singing. He won many awards.
F: The man who is singing won many awards.
F: The man singing won many awards.

下面我再请老师念一些句子给你听, 看看怎么简化被动语态从句. 首先男老师念两个句子,比方: Linda is listening to the record. It was bought recently. 接着女老师就把两句话合并为一句:Linda is listening to the record which was bought recently. 最后女老师再用动词过去分词把从句简化. 所以句子就变成: Linda is listening to the record bought recently. 老师念句子的时候请你注意听.

M: Linda is playing a record. It was recorded by her favorite singer.
F: Linda is playing a record which was recorded by her favorite singer.
F: Linda is playing a record recorded by her favorite singer.
M: Linda is listening to the record. It was bought recently.
F: Linda is listening to the record which was bought recently.
F: Linda is listening to the record bought recently.
M: Linda likes to listen to songs. They are sung by her favorite singer.
F: Linda likes to listen to songs which were sung by her favorite singer.
F: Linda likes to listen to songs sung by her favorite singer.
M: The song won many awards. It was sung by Linda's favorite singer.
F: The song which was sung by Linda's favorite singer won many awards.
F: The song sung by Linda's favorite singer won many awards.

下面我们作一组练习, 一方面把从句简化, 一方面学习新词汇. 练习的作法是由老师念一个有从句的词组, 比方 "描述日常生活的歌曲" song which depict day to day situations. 学生就用动词加上 i-n-g 把词组简化为: songs depicting day to day situations. 这组练习里有许多有用的词汇,比方 "表达" express, "形容" describe, "反映" reflect, "以...为特点" feature,"主题" theme, "旋律" melody,"步调" pace, "节拍" rhythmic beat 等等, 请你在作练习的时候特别注意听.学生作练习的时候请你也一起作.

M: songs which depict day to day situations
F: songs depicting day to day situations
M: songs which express human emotions
F: songs expressing human emotions
M: songs which reflect the lives of American blacks
F: songs reflecting the lives of American blacks
M: songs which feature simple themes
F: songs featuring simple themes
M: songs which feature simple melodies
F: songs featuring simple melodies
M: songs which feature fast pace
F: songs featuring fast pace
M: songs which feature rhythmic beats
F: songs featuring rhythmic beats

下面我们作一组代换练习, 用我们刚才练习过的词组作句子说明哪些歌曲老少皆宜. 练习的作法是由老师先念一个句子, 接着老师念一个词组, 学生就把词组代换到原来的句子里. 请你跟学生一起作练习, 一方面复习语法, 一方面复习我们刚才学的新词汇. 现在开始.

M: Songs depicting day to day situations are enjoyed by people of all ages.
M: expressing human emotions
F: Songs expressing human emotions are enjoyed by people of all ages.
M: reflecting the lives of American blacks
F: Songs reflecting the lives of American blacks are enjoyed by people of all ages.
M: featruing simple themes
F: Songs featuring simple themes are enjoyed by people of all ages.
M: featuring simple melodies
F: Songs featuring simple melodies are enjoyed by people of all ages.
M: featuring fast pace
F: Songs featuring fast pace are enjoyed by people of all ages.
M: featuring rhythmic beats
F: Songs featuring rhythmic beats are enjoyed by people of all ages.

下面我们看看怎么样简化否定的从句. 比方有一句话: " 不了解美国文化的人能够欣赏美国歌曲. " People who don't understand American culture can appreciate American songs. 这句话可以简化为: People not understanding American culture can appreciate American songs. 下面我们作一组练习多学学这种说法. 练习的内容是说美国歌曲在世界各地普遍受欢迎, 连不说英文, 听不懂歌词的外国人都喜欢.

现在请你注意听老师念一个有从句的句子, 然后请你把从句简化, 再说出整个句子. 每作完一句老师会把句子再念一遍给你听.

M: People who can't speak English listen to American songs.
F: People not speaking English listen to American songs.
M: People who don't live in the U.S. sing American songs.
F: People not living in the U.S. sing American songs.
M: People who can't understand the lyrics like American songs.
F: People not understanding the lyrics like American songs.
M: People who don't understand American culture can appreciate American songs.
F: People not understanding American culture can appreciate American songs.

下面我们作一组练习, 一方面谈一谈美国的摇滚乐, 一方面学习把用来修饰名词的被动语态从句简化. 练习的作法还是由老师念一个有从句的句子, 比方"受听众欢迎, 市场广大的摇滚乐在世界各地都听得到." Rock music, which is marketed to a demanding audience,is heard throughout the world. 请你把句子改为:Rock music,marketed to a demanding audience, is heard throughout the world.这组练习里也提到 "美国乡村歌曲" country music, "美国黑人音乐布鲁斯"blues 跟 "早期摇滚乐" rock-and-roll, 请你在作练习的时候一边注意句子的结构,一边注意句子的意思.每作完一句老师就把句子再念一遍给你听.

M: Rock music, which was influenced by the blues and country music, was first known as rock-and-roll in the 1950's.
F: Rock music, influenced by the blues and country music, was first known as rock-and-roll in the 1950's.
M: Rock music, which is played on the radio everyday, is listened to by millions of people.
F: Rock music, played on the radio everyday, is listened to by millions of people.
M: Rock music, which is performed often by young musicians, is popular with young people.
F: Rock music, performed often by young musicians, is popular with young people.
M: Rock music, which is usually sung in English, is often translated into other languages.
F: Rock music, usually sung in English, is often translated into other languages.
M: Rock music, which is marketed to a demanding audience, is heard throughout the world.
F: Rock music, marketed to a demanding audience, is heard throughout the world.

三.听短文回答问题

今天我们要听一篇介绍美国音乐的文章. 这篇文章除了提到美国流行歌曲的种类和特点, 还提到这些歌曲在世界各地都受欢迎的原因. 文章里许多句型和词汇都是我们刚才练习过的.现在请你注意听.

One of America's most important exports is her modern music. American popular music is played all over the world. It is enjoyed by people of all ages in all countries. Though the lyrics are English, nevertheless people not speaking English enjoy it. The reasons for its popularity are its fast pace and rhythmic beat. The music has many origins in the United States. Country music, coming from the rural areas in the southern United States, is one source. Country music features simple themes and melodies describing day to day situations and the feelings of country people. Many people appreciate this music because of the emotions expressed by country music songs. A second origin of American popular music is the blues. It depicted mostly sad feelings reflecting the difficult lives of American blacks. It is usually played and sung by black musicians, but it is popular with all Americans. Rock music is a newer form of music. This music style, featuring fast and repetitious rhythms, was influenced by the blues and country music. It was first known as rock-and-roll in the 1950's. Since then there have been many forms of rock music, hard rock, soft rock, punk rock, disco music and others. Many performers of popular rock music are young musicians. American popular music is marketed to a demanding audience. New popular songs are heard on the radio several times a day. Some songs become popular all over the world. People hear these songs sung in their original English or sometimes translated to other languages. The words may differ but the enjoyment of the music is universal.

现在请你回答三个问题. 回答之后老师会念出正确答案给你听.

第一个问题是:
M: What are some types of American popular music?
F: Country, blues and rock are some types of American popular music.

第二个问题是:
M: What is country music?
F: It features simple themes and melodies describing day to day situations and the feelings of country people.

第三个问题是:
M: Does American music have a wide audience?
F: Yes, it does.