英语语法:虚拟语气 (44)

时间 : 2012-05-18 10:15来源 : VOA官网 收听下载次数 :
下载音频

在这一课里, 我们要复习怎么作假设性句子来说明跟现在或是过去的事实相反的条件和结果, 比方: "如果他在这儿, 他会跟我们一块去." If he were here, he would go with us. "如果他昨天在这儿, 当时他会跟我们去. "If he had been here yesterday, he would have gone with us. 等等, 同时我们也要复习 hope, h-o-p-e, hope跟 wish, w-i-s-h, wish 在意思跟用法上的分别.

首先我们先来听今天这一课的对话, 内容是说鲍勃跟珍妮谈起了选举跟助选的事情. 请你注意听两位英文老师的发音和语调.

M: Did you vote in the last election?
F: No. I wish I had voted, but I wasn't old enough. Did you?
M: Yes, I did. But I wish I had worked in the campaign. I would certainly have if I hadn't gone to China.
F: Did you have a chance to work on a campaign?
M: Yes, I was offered a job as a campaign lead man.
F: What would you have done if you had accepted the job?
M: I would have gone to states where there were primary elections. I would have set up rallies and organized people.
F: You could have traveled all over the country.
M: Yes, I could have. But instead I traveled all over China.

现在我们再把整段对话听一遍. 这次老师念得比较慢, 请你注意听.

M: Did you vote in the last election?
F: No. I wish I had voted, but I wasn't old enough. Did you?
M: Yes, I did. But I wish I had worked in the campaign. I would certainly have if I hadn't gone to China.
F: Did you have a chance to work on a campaign?
M: Yes, I was offered a job as a campaign lead man.
F: What would you have done if you had accepted the job?
M: I would have gone to states where there were primary elections. I would have set up rallies and organized people.
F: You could have traveled all over the country.
M: Yes, I could have. But instead I traveled all over China.

下面我把对话里包含了今天要复习的语法的句子挑出来, 请老师再念一遍给你听.

F: I wish I had voted.
M: I wish I had worked in the campaign.
F: What would you have done if you had accepted the job?
M: I would have gone to states where there were primary elections. I would have set up rallies.
F: You could have traveled all over the country.

二.复习 IF 引导的跟事实相反的情况

现在我们开始作练习, 一方面复习语法, 一方面复习词汇. 第一组练习的作法是由老师根据对话内容提出跟过去事实相反的问句, 比方:What would Bob have done if he hadn't gone to China? 接着老师说: work in the campaign. 学生就用老师提出的词组来回答问题, 所以答案就是: He would have worked in the campaign if he hadn't gone to China. 请你在学生作练习的时候也一起作. 现在我们开始.

M: What would Bob have done if he hadn't gone to China?
M: work in the campaign.
F: He would have worked in the campaign if he hadn't gone to China.
M: What would he have done if he had worked in the campaign?
M: travel all over the country
F: He would have traveled all over the country if he had worked in the campaign.
M: What would he have done if he had traveled all over the country?
M: go to primary elections
F: He would have gone to primary elections if he had traveled all over the country.
M: What would he have done if he had gone to primary elections?
M: set up rallies
F: He would have set up rallies if he had gone to primary elections.
M: What would he have done if he had set up rallies?
M: organize people
F: He would have organized people if he had set up rallies.
M: What would he have done if he had organized people?
M: help his friend win the election
F: He would have helped his friend win the election if he had organized people.

三.复习 WISH

以前我们学过 wish, w-i-s-h, wish 可以用来表达没有实现的愿望, 比方你的朋友不能够跟你去看电影, 你觉得很遗憾, 你就说: "我真希望你能跟我一起去."I wish you could go with me. 如果这件事发生在昨天或是更早以前你就必须这么说: I wish you could have gone with me. 现在我们作一组练习, 学学第二种说法, 看看怎么表达跟过去事实相反的愿望. 练习的内容都跟鲍勃没有参加助选团而感到遗憾有关系. 练习的作法是由老师用过去时态说明鲍勃没有作的事情, 比方: "他没有去参加政治会议." He didn't go to the political conventions. 请你把句子改成: He wishs he had gone to the political conventions. 每作完一句老师就会把正确答案念给你听. 现在我们开始.

M: He didn't vote.
F: He wishes he had voted.
M: He didn't take part in the primary elections.
F: He wishes he had taken part in the primary elections.
M: He didn't hear the candidates' campaign speeches.
F: He wishes he had heard the candidates' campaign speeches.
M: He didn't participate in the campaign.
F: He wishes he had participated in the campaign.
M: He didn't go to the political conventions.
F: He wishes he had gone to the political conventions.
M: He didn't set up political rallies.
F: He wishes he had set up political rallies.
M: He didn't help his friend win the election.
F: He wishes he had helped his friend win the election.

四.复习HOPE

现在我们复习hope, h-o-p-e, hope的用法.这个字可以用来表达未来可能实现的愿望. 下面一组练习的内容都跟鲍勃希望将来能够作的事情有关系. 练习的作法是先由男老师提出过去时态疑问句, 比方: Did he vote?女老师就回答说: No, he didn't. He hopes to do it next time. 在女老师回答之后请你再跟她一起把答案重复一遍. 现在我们开始.

M: Did he vote?
F: No, he didn't. He hopes to do it next time.
M: Did he work in the campaign?
F: No, he didn't. He hopes to work in it next time.
M: Did he take part in the primary elections?
F: No, he didn't. He hopes to take part in them next time.
M: Did he go to the political conventions?
F: No, he didn't. He hopes to go to them next time.
M: Did he set up political rallies?
F: No, he didn't. He hopes to set them up next time.
M: Did he help his friend win the election?
F: No, he didn't. He hopes to help his friend win it next time.

五.复习跟过去事实相反的说法

下面我们再作一组练习, 一方面复习跟过去事实相反的说法, 一方面复习以前学过的词汇, 比方平衡预算, 裁减赤字, 制造就业机会, 争取民权等等. 练习的内容是说鲍勃所支持的候选人没有当选; 不过如果他当时选上了, 他会不会设法实践竞选诺言. 练习的作法是由珍妮问鲍勃一些问题, 比方: Would he have tried to carry out his campaign promises if he had been elected? 鲍勃就肯定地答覆说: He would have tried to carry out his campaign promises. 请你注意听珍妮问问题,然后跟鲍勃一起回答.

F: Would he have tried to carry out his campaign promises if he had been elected?
M: He would have tried to carry out his campaign promises.
F: Would he have tried to balance the budget if he had been elected?
M: He would have tried to balance the budget.
F: Would he have tried to cut spending if he had been elected?
M: He would have tried to cut spending.
F: Would he have tried to reduce the deficit if he had been elected?
M: He would have tried to reduce the deficit.
F: Would he have tried to create job opportunities if he had been elected?
M: He would have tried to create job opportunities.
F: Would he have tried to improve the economy if he had been elected?
M: He would have tried to improve the economy.
F: Would he have tried to fight for civil rights if he had been elected?
M: He would have tried to fight for civil rights.
F: Would he have tried to look after senior citizens if he had been elected?
M: He would have tried to look after senior citizens.

六.复习 WISH

下面我们作一组练习, 一方面复习用 wish 来表达跟现在的情况相反的愿望,一方面学习新词汇, 比方 "工作卖力" dedicated, "有果断力" decisive, "知识丰富" knowledgeable, "能言善道" eloquent, "思想创新" innovative 等等. 练习的内容说到鲍勃决定不选某个候选人的种种原因. 练习的作法是鲍勃用if 说出跟目前的情况相反的话,比方: If he were more experienced,I would vote for him. 请你把句子改成: I wish he were more experienced. 每作完一句, 老师就会把句子再念一遍给你听. 现在我们开始.

M: If he were more experienced, I would vote for him.
F: I wish he were more experienced.
M: If he were more dedicated, I would vote for him.
F: I wish he were more dedicated.
M: If he were more organized, I would vote for him.
F: I wish he were more organized.
M: If he were more decisive, I would vote for him.
F: I wish he were more decisive.
M: If he were more knowledgeable, I would vote for him.
F: I wish he were more knowledgeable.
M: If he were more eloquent, I would vote for him.
F: I wish he were more eloquent.
M: If he were more innovative, I would vote for him.
F: I wish he were more innovative.

七.听短文回答问题

今天我们要听一篇介绍美国总统选举的文章. 这篇文章谈到大选的基本程序,美国两个主要政党提名的候选人怎么样从事竞选等等.现在请你注意听, 等一会儿我们还是依照惯例按着文章内容, 问你三个问题.

Every four years, Americans elect a president. According to the constitution any American citizen over 40 years of age who was born in the U.S. can be president. There are always many candidates who hope they will be elected. There are many political parties in the United States, and most of these will have candidates for president. However, two political parties are much stronger than the others. They are called the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. For over a hundred years, the man elected as president has always been either a Democrat or a Republican. All American citizens over 18 years of age can vote for a president. The process of electing a president takes nearly a year. During the election year there are numerous local elections, called primary elections, held in many of the fifty states. These elections indicate who the most popular candidates are. In primary elections, usually held in the winter and spring, candidates run against members of their own parties. In this way they try to get support of party members around the country. During the summer,both parties have conventions where the party members make the final choice for the party's presidential candidate. Each party chooses a person to run for president and a person to run for vice president. The two candidates work as a team. They will win or lose the election together. Once the final candidates are chosen, they campaign around the country, trying to win votes. The national election is held in November. The candidate who wins becomes president the following January. The election process is long and costly. Thousands of people work for the leading candidates. Millions of dollars are spent. Individuals prepare to run for presidency for many years. Nearly all of these people fail to ever win.

现在请你回答问题. 在你回答之后老师会念出正确答案给你听.

第一个问题是:
M: How do Americans choose a president?
F: They hold elections every 4 years.

第二个问题是:
M: What are "primary elections"?
F: They are local elections held before the national election.

第三个问题是:
M: When are the final candidates chosen?
F: They are chosen in party conventions during the summer.