英语语法:虚拟语气 (42)

时间 : 2012-05-18 10:13来源 : VOA官网 收听下载次数 :
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在这一课里, 我们要学习用 "如果" if, i-f, if 作假设性的句子来表达跟现在的情况相反的条件和结果. 比方你的好朋友邀请你跟他一起去看电影,可是你必须念书, 不能去, 所以你就告诉他: "如果不是我得念书, 我就跟你去看电影." 这句话英文应该这么说: If I didn't have to study, I would go to the movies with you.

现在我们来听英文老师念一段对话, 多举几个例子给你听. 对话的内容是说凯特的父母搬到佛罗里达州, 凯特很想念他们,亨利想法子安慰她的情况. 请你注意听两位英文老师的发音和语调.

F: I miss my folks. I wish we could see them.
M: Well, if they lived closer, we would see them more often.
F: If we owned a bigger house, they could live with us.
M: You know they would never do that. They would feel that they were intruding.
F: You're right. But I wish I were with them now. Let's go visit them.
M: All the way to Florida? We could if we didn't have to work and if the kids didn't have school.
F: Maybe they will come to visit us when it gets warmer.
M: I'm sure they will. Maybe we can go there to see them this summer on vacation. Meanwhile, why don't you call them on the phone?
F: I just did. That's why I miss them so much right now. 现在老师用慢速度再把整个对话念一遍.

F: I miss my folks. I wish we could see them.
M: Well, if they lived closer, we would see them more often.
F: If we owned a bigger house, they could live with us.
M: You know they would never do that. They would feel that they were intruding.
F: You're right. But I wish I were with them now. Let's go visit them.
M: All the way to Florida? We could if we didn't have to work and if the kids didn't have school.
F: Maybe they will come to visit us when it gets warmer.
M: I'm sure they will. Maybe we can go there to see them this summer on vacation. Meanwhile, why don't you call them on the phone?
F: I just did. That's why I miss them so much right now.

现在我把对话里包含今天要学的语法的句子挑出来,请老师再念一遍给你听.

M: If they lived closer, we would see them more often.
F: If we owned a bigger house, they could live with us.
M: If they lived with us, they would feel that they were intruding.
M: We could if we didn't have to work and if the kids didn't have school.

二.用 IF 引导跟现在事实相反的情况

听了上面那些句子, 你可能已经注意到怎么表达跟现在事实相反的情况.在下面一组练习里你可以更仔细地把事实跟假设作个比较. 练习的作法是亨利用现在时态说一句话, 比方 "我们没有大房子. 他们不能跟我们一起住." We don't have a big house. They cannot live with us. 接着凯特就用过去时态把句子改成:"如果我们有大房子,他们就可以跟我们一块住." If we had a big house, they could live with us.这组练习的内容都是说到凯特的愿望.这些愿望都跟凯特的父母有关系. 练习里有些词汇可能你不熟, 比方"照顾他们" take care of them,"照料他们自己" look after themselves, "陪伴他们" keep the company 等等.请你在听老师念句子的时候一方面注意语法的变化, 一方面注意词汇.

M: We don't have a big house. They cannot live with us.
F: If we had a big house, they could live with us.
M: They don't live with us. We cannot see them everyday.
F: If they lived with us. We could see them everyday.
M: We don't see them every day. We cannot take care of them.
F: If we saw them everyday, we could take care of them.
M: They are not young. They cannot look after themselves.
F: If they were young, they could look after themselves.
M: We have jobs in Seattle. We cannot move to Florida.
F: If we didn't have jobs in Seattle, we could move to Florida.
M: Long distance phone calls are expensive. We cannot talk to them everyday.
F: If long distance phone calls weren't expensive, we could talk to them everyday.
M: We are busy. We cannot go to visit them.
F: If we weren't busy, we could go to visit them.
M: Our kids have to go to school. They cannot visit the grandparents.
F: If our kids didn't have to go to school, they could visit the grandparents.
M: We cannot visit them. We cannot keep them company.
F: If we could visit them, we could keep them company.
M: We are not there with them. We cannot buy groceries for them.
F: If we were there with them, we could buy groceries for them.
M: We are not living with them. We cannot do their laundry for them.
F: If we were living with them, we could do their laundry for them.

在用过去时态表达跟目前相反的情况的时候,be动词一律用were,w-e-r-e, were. 比方凯特不住在佛罗里达州, 所以她不能够照顾父母. 她可以这样说: I am not in Florida. I cannot take care of them. 要是把这句话改成: "如果我在那儿, 我就可以照顾他们." 英文就应该这样说: I could take care of them if I were there. 下面我们作一组代换练习学学这种说法, 同时复习刚才那组练习里的一些词汇.

现在请你注意听凯特说一句话, 接着老师念一个词组,请你跟凯特一起把词组代换到前半个句子里.

F: I could take care of them if I were there.
M: look after them.
F: I could look after them if I were there.
M: keep them company
F: I could keep them company if I were there.
M: help them
F: I could help them if I were there.
M: cook for them
F: I could cook for them if I were there.
M: buy groceries for them
F: I could buy groceries for them if I were there.
M: do their laundry
F: I could do their laundry if I were there.
M: take them shopping
F: I could take them shopping if I were there.

下面我们再作一组代换练习, 一方面学习今天教的语法,一方面复习形容词比较级.练习的内容是说如果凯特的父母跟女儿, 女婿一块住会有什么好处. 请你跟着凯特把第一个句子重复一遍, 然后跟凯特一起把老师提出的词汇代换到后半个句子里.

F: If they lived with us, it would be more economical for them.
M: less expensive
F: If they lived with us, it would be less expensive for them.
M: more convenient
F: If they lived with us, it would be more convenient for them.
M: less troublesome
F: If they lived with us, it would be less troublesome for them.
M: easier
F: If they lived with us, it would be easier for them.
M: less difficult
F: If they lived with us, it would be less difficult for them.

下面我们再作一组练习, 学学怎么表达跟目前相反的情况. 练习的内容都是说到在美国六十五岁以上的老人,也就是所谓的 senior citizens 能得到什么好处.在这组练习里你可以学到许多有用的词汇, 比方 "福利" benefit, "退休金"retirement pension,"义务" obligation,"无忧无虑"care-free. "志愿工作" volunteer work 等等.现在请你先注意老师用现在时态说明目前的情况; 然后请你用过去时态否定句说明跟目前相反的情况. 下面就是一个例子:

M: We are senior citizens. We are able to enjoy senior citizen benefits.
F: If we weren't senior citizens, we wouldn't be able to enjoy senior citizen benefits.

现在我们开始作练习. 每作完一句就请你听老师把正确答案念一遍.

M: We are senior citizens. We are able to enjoy senior citizen benefits.
F: If we weren't senior citizens, we wouldn't be able to enjoy senior citizen benefits.
M: We don't have to work full time. We have time to enjoy our hobbies.
F: If we had to work full time, we wouldn't have time to enjoy our hobbies.
M: We don't have many obligations. We are carefree.
F: If we had many obligations, we wouldn't be carefree.
M: We don't need to work full time. We are free to do volunteer work.
F: If we needed to work full time, we wouldn't be free to do volunteer work.
M: We do volunteer work. We have a lot of new experiences.
F: If we didn't do volunteer work, we wouldn't have a lot of new experiences.

下面我们再作一组练习. 这组练习的作法是由老师念一些句子说明美国老年人目前的生活情况, 比方 "我们从事志愿工作以免与社会脱节." We do volunteer work so that we don't lose contact with the society. 请你用might 把句子改成:If we didn't do volunteer work, we might lose contact with the society.在这组练习里, 除了复习今天教的语法你还可以学习一些有用的词汇, 比方"跟什么什么失去联系" lose contact with."跟某某人交往" associate with, "团结" united, "为了要" in order to 等等. 请你在作练习的时候特别注意. 每作完一句老师就会念出正确答案让你作个比较, 看你作对了没有.

M: We do volunteer work so that we don't lose contact with the society.
F: If we didn't do volunteer work, we might lose contact with the society.
M: We are active so that we can enjoy life.
F: If we weren't active, we might not enjoy life.
M: We associate with fellow senior citizens to be able to share our interests.
F: If we didn't associate with fellow senior citizens, we might not be able to share our interests.
M: We are united in order to have social influence.
F: If we weren't united, we might not have social influence.

三.听短文回答问题

今天我们要听一篇谈美国老年人生活的文章. 请你注意听. 等一会儿我们要依照惯例根据文章问你三个问题.

People over the age of 65 in the U.S. are called senior citizens. Life for these people is different than for younger Americans. Most senior citizens retire, or no longer work full time. Also it is unusual for people of this age to live with their children and grandchildren. Grandparents tend to live in their own houses or apartments away from their families. For many senior citizens, the years after 65 are not enjoyable. They feel unproductive when they no longer work. Their lives lose meaning. In addition, they may feel lonely being away from their families and the contacts they had in their work. Moreover, they become more concerned with their health as they grow older. If they live in big cities, they often worry about their safety. Other senior citizens enjoy their lives. They feel free to do things they were not able to do when they were working and raising families. They now have time to enjoy hobbies and sports and travel. They associate with their fellow senior citizens who have common interests and equal free time. Many senior citizens move to retirement communities located in warm climates. Some senior citizens continue to work beyond retirement age. Many find new careers and professional opportunities after they retire. The number of senior citizens in the U.S. is increasing rapidly because people are living longer than before. The average life span for Americans is now more than 74 years. Because of their larger numbers and more active life styles, senior citizens are gaining social influence in the country, both politically and economically. Their concerns are receiving a wider audience than ever before. The time may come when all Americans will look forward to becoming senior citizens.

现在请你回答三个问题. 每回答一个问题, 老师就会念出正确答案给你听.

第一个问题是:
M: Who are senior citizens?
F: Senior citizens are people over 65 years of age.

第二个问题是:
M: What are some of the problems for senior citizens?
F: Some of them feel unproductive, lonely and unsafe.

第三个问题是:
M: Why are senior citizens gaining social influence?

F: It is because the number of senior citizens is growing and because senior citizens are more active.