英语语法:时间从句 (39)

时间 : 2012-05-17 07:28来源 : VOA官网 收听下载次数 :
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在这一课里,我们一方面复习用when, w-h-e-n, when, before, b-e-f-o-r-e, before,since, s-i-n-c-e, since 等等介词开头, 用来表明时间的从句, 一方面复习以前学过的一些动词词组, 同时我们要学一学有关抽烟,戒烟的一些词汇.

首先我们来听今天这一课的对话,内容是说鲍勃告诉珍妮他想戒烟. 请你注意听两位英文老师的发音和语调.

M: Jenny, I'm going to stop smoking when I finish this pack of cigarettes.
F: Good for you, Bob, but why are you telling me?
M: To help me stop. When I tell all my friends, then I won't dare to smoke in front of them.
F: Why do you want to quit? I thought you liked to smoke.
M: I do. But it's getting so expensive. And now that I'm jogging, when I run, I can hardly breathe
F: I'll help you quit. Whenever you want a cigarette, call me and I'll take your mind off it.
M: Thanks, Jenny, I'll do it.
F: Bob, why don't you stop now? You don't have to smoke the rest of that pack.
M: I just bought it. I don't want to waste my money. I'll call you tomorrow.

下面老师用慢速度再把整段对话念一遍.

M: Jenny, I'm going to stop smoking when I finish this pack of cigarettes.
F: Good for you, Bob, but why are you telling me?
M: To help me stop. When I tell all my friends, then I won't dare to smoke in front of them.
F: Why do you want to quit? I thought you liked to smoke.
M: I do. But it's getting so expensive. And now that I'm jogging, when I run, I can hardly breathe
F: I'll help you quit. Whenever you want a cigarette, call me and I'll take your mind off it.
M: Thanks, Jenny, I'll do it.
F: Bob, why don't you stop now? You don't have to smoke the rest of that pack.
M: I just bought it. I don't want to waste my money. I'll call you tomorrow.

现在我把对话里包含时间从句的句子挑出来, 请老师再念一遍给你听.

M: I'm going to stop smoking when I finish this pack of cigarettes.
M: When I tell all my friends, then I won't dare to smoke in front of them.
M: When I run, I can hardly breathe.
F: Whenever you want a cigarette call me.

二.表明时间从句的介词

现在我们开始作练习. 第一组练习是说鲍勃什么时候抽烟, 练习的作法是老师念一个句子, 接着老师念一个词或是词组, 比方 "紧张" nervous, "在指定地区" in the designated area 等等, 学生就把他听到的词组代换到原来的句子里. 在学生作练习的时候请你也一起作.

M: Bob smokes when he is studying for the exams.
M: nervous
F: Bob smokes when he is nervous.
M: in the designated area
F: Bob smokes when he is in the designated area.
M: watching television
F: Bob smokes when he is watching television.

下面一组练习是说鲍勃什么时候不抽烟, 比方在跑步的时候, 在禁烟地区的时候等等. 请你跟刚才一样作练习.

M: Bob doesn't smoke when he is in a theatre.
M: on a bus
F: Bob doesn't smoke when he is on a bus.
M: jogging
F: Bob doesn't smoke when he is jogging.
M: in a restricted area
F: Bob doesn't smoke when he is in a restricted area.

下面我们作一组综合练习, 用许多不同介词作表明时间的从句, 同时我们也要复习一些跟动名词一起用的动词词组, 比方 take up, keep on, give up 等等. 练习的内容也都跟鲍勃抽烟有关系. 请你注意听老师问问题, 并且根据问题作肯定的答覆. 每回答一句老师就会念正确答案给你听.

M: Did Bob take up smoking after he went to high school?
F: Yes, he took up smoking after he went to high school.
M: Has he kept on smoking ever since he was 15?
F: Yes, he has kept on smoking ever since he was 15.
M: Has he considered quitting smoking since he got back from China?
F: Yes, he has considered quitting smoking since he got back from China.
M: Did he tell Jenny his plan when he saw her?
F: Yes, he told her his plan when he saw her.
M: Was he smoking while he was talking to Jenny?
F: Yes, he was smoking while he was talking to her.
M: Did he say that he would give up smoking when he finished his last pack of cigarettes?
F: Yes, he said that he would give up smoking when he finished his last pack of cigarettes.

下面我们再用同样方式作一组练习复习动词词组和表明时间的从句. 练习的内容是说鲍勃的父亲在得肺癌之前老是抽雪茄, 后来住院的时候戒了, 出院以后又改抽烟斗的事情. 请你根据问题作肯定的答覆. 回答之后请你听老师念正确答案.

M: Did Bob's father use to smoke cigars before he got lung cancer?
F: Yes, he used to smoke cigars before he got lung cancer.
M: Did he try to put it off when he was told to quit?
F: Yes, he tried to put it off when he was told to quit.
M: Did he finally give up smoking cigars when he was in the hospital?
F: Yes, he finaliy gave up smoking cigars when he was in the hospital.
M: Did he look forward to smoking whenever he saw other people smoke?
F: Yes, he looked forward to smoking whenever he saw other people smoke.
M: Did he take up pipe smoking soon after he got out of the hospital?
F: Yes, he took up pipe smoking soon after he got out of the hospital.
M: Did he keep on smoking until the day he died?
F: Yes, he kept on smoking until the day he died.

下面我们再练习说明时间的从句. 练习的作法是老师用 when 提出一个 过去时态问题,比方"美国印地安人是什么时候开始种烟草的?"When did American Indians start growing tobacco? 然后老师说: "哥伦布到美洲大陆以前" before Columbus came to America, 你就回答说: They started growing tobacco before Columbus came to America. 老师也可能用 how long 提出现在完成时态问题,比方"烟草工业对美国经济具有重要性已经有多久了?" How long has the tobacco industry been important for America's economy? 然后老师说:"自从殖民地时代农民种植烟草外销以来" ever since colonial farmers grew tobacco for export.你就回答说:It has been important for America's economy ever since colonial farmers grew tobacco for export. 这组练习的内容跟美国烟草工业和美国人抽烟的情况有关系, 比方人们发现了某些疾病跟抽烟有关连以后, 香烟公司就开始卖有过滤嘴的香烟, 而政府也制定了一些有关抽烟的法规等等. 在这组练习里你可以学到一些有用的词汇, 比方 "降低" decline, "制定"institute, "法规" regulation, "主要" major, "目标"aim, "牌子"brand,"过滤嘴"filter, "疾病"ailment等等. 这组练习比较难, 请你在回答问题之前特别注意听,每回答一句, 老师就会念出正确答案给你听.

M: When did American Indians start growing tobacco?
M: before Columbus came to America
F: They started growing tobacco before Columbus came to America.
M: How long has the American tobacco industry been large?
M: ever since colonial farmers grew tobacco in large quantities
F: It has been large ever since colonial farmers grew tobacco in large quantities.
M: How long has the tobacco industry been important for America's economy?
M: ever since colonial farmers grew tobacco for export
F: It has been important for America's economy ever since colonial farmers grew tobacco for export.
M: How long has cigarette smoking been popular in the U.S.?
M: since the 1800's
F: It has been popular in the U.S.since the 1800's.
M: When did the tobacco industry begin selling different brands of cigarettes?
M: When cigarettes smoking became popular
F: It began selling different brands of cigarettes when cigarette smoking became popular.
M: When did the tobacco industry begin selling cigarettes with filters?
M: after ailments were linked to smoking.
F: It began selling cigarettes with filters after ailments were linked to smoking.
M: How long has cigarette smoking been expensive?
M: since taxes on cigarettes were increased in the 1970's
F: It has been expensive since taxes on cigarettes were increased in the 1970's.
M: How long has physical fitness been a major aim of millions of Americans?
M: since the late 1970's
F: It has been a major aim of millions of Americans since the late 1970's.
M: When were regulations on cigarette smoking instituted?
M: after smoking was found to be dangerous to health
F: They were instituted after smoking was found to be dangerous to health.
M: When did the number of smokers start to decline?
M: after people were warned that smoking was dangerous to health
F: The number started to decline after people were warned that smoking was dangerous to health.

三.听短文回答问题

今天我们要听的文章简单说到美国烟草工业的历史, 同时也谈到在美国人们因为注重健康而避免抽烟的趋势. 文章里许多词汇都是我们刚才练习过的.

现在请你注意听.

American Indians grew and smoked tobacco before Columbus came to America. The tobacco industry has been large and important for America's economy ever since colonial farmers grew tobacco for export 300 years ago. Even today tobacco is grown in large quantities along America's Eastern Coast. Since the 1800's the most common form of smoking tobacco is in cigarettes. Men and women of all ages smoke cigarettes and there are dozens of brands sold in the U.S. Nearly all cigarettes now sold have filters. Pipe smoking has some popularity and cigars are usually only smoked by older men. Over the past fifteen years, many people have stopped smoking. This movement away from cigarettes began when lung cancer and other ailments were linked to smoking. In the 1970's when taxes on cigarettes were greatly increased, cigarette smoking became much more expensive. Since the late 1970's physical fitness has become a major aim of millions of Americans. These three factors have been the major causes for many people to stop smoking. Today in the U.S. cigarette smoking is restricted in many ways. When smokers are in restaurants, on trains and in public buildings, they may smoke only in designated areas. When they are on public buses, in theaters and in classrooms, they may not smoke at all. Cigarettes are not advertised on television or radio. A notice is on every package of cigarettes sold in America warning that smoking is dangerous to health. These regulations have reduced cigarette smoking very much since they were instituted. Smoking is on the decline.

现在老师先把今天测验的三个问题念一遍给你听.

第一个问题是:
M: How is tobacco smoked in the U.S.?
第二个问题是:
M: What has caused many Americans to stop smoking?
第三个问题是:
M: What are some of the regulations on smoking in the U.S.?

现在老师用慢速度再把整篇文章念一遍给你听.

American Indians grew and smoked tobacco before Columbus came to America. The tobacco industry has been large and important for America's economy ever since colonial farmers grew tobacco for export 300 years ago. Even today tobacco is grown in large quantities along America's Eastern Coast. Since the 1800's the most common form of smoking tobacco is in cigarettes. Men and women of all ages smoke cigarettes and there are dozens of brands sold in the U.S. Nearly all cigarettes now sold have filters. Pipe smoking has some popularity and cigars are usually only smoked by older men. Over the past fifteen years, many people have stopped smoking. This movement away from cigarettes began when lung cancer and other ailments were linked to smoking. In the 1970's when taxes on cigarettes were greatly increased, cigarette smoking became much more expensive. Since the late 1970's physical fitness has become a major aim of millions of Americans. These three factors have been the major causes for many people to stop smoking. Today in the U.S. cigarette smoking is restricted in many ways. When smokers are in restaurants, on trains and in public buildings, they may smoke only in designated areas. When they are on public buses, in theaters and in classrooms, they may not smoke at all. Cigarettes are not advertised on television or radio. A notice is on every package of cigarettes sold in America warning that smoking is dangerous to health. These regulations have reduced cigarette smoking very much since they were instituted. Smoking is on the decline.

现在请你回答你刚才听过的三个问题. 每回答一个问题, 老师就会念出正确答案给你听.

第一个问题是:
M: How is tobacco smoked in the U.S.?
F: Tobacco is smoked in cigarettes, cigars and pipes.

第二个问题是:
M: What has caused many Americans to stop smoking?
F: Ailments, taxes on cigarettes and physical fitness have caused many Americans to stop smoking.

第三个问题是:
M: What are some of the regulations on smoking in the U.S.?
F: Smokers can only smoke in designated areas. Cigarettes are not advertised on television or radio and people are warned that smoking is dangerous to health.