# 英语语法：that、which和 who定语从句 (20)

在这一课里,我们要学习以that, t-h-a-t,that, which, w-h-i-c-h,which和who, w-h-o, who 开头的短句. 这种短句在整个句子里有修饰的功用.首先我们还是听一段对话, 内容是说彼得和玛丽快要毕业了, 两个人见面谈起毕业典礼的事情. 请你注意听两位英文老师的发音和语调.

F: Next week we graduate from high school. I can hardly wait.

M: But first there are two more examinations which I have to pass.

F: And there are three more papers that I have to write.

M: Did you get your cap and robe for the graduation ceremony?

F: Yes, but the robe which they gave me is too long. The person who gave it to me told me to take it back.

M: The one that they gave me is too short. Maybe we should trade.

在刚才那段对话里有些句子包含了用 that, which 和 who 开头的短句, 现在我

请英文老师再把这些句子念一遍给你听.

M: There are two more examinations which I have to pass.

F: There are three more papers that I have to write.

F: The robe which they gave me is too long.

F: The person who gave it to me told me to take it back.

M: The one that they gave me is too short.

二.THAT

听了刚才那段对话, 你可能已经注意到用一个短句来修饰一个词的时候, 它的位置是在那个词的后面,比方: "穿着长礼服戴着方帽子的学生," 英文应该这样说:The students that wear long robes and caps with square tops.现在我们来练习这类句子, 每个句子都跟彼得和玛丽快要毕业有关系. 现在请你注意听男老师念句子. 然后跟着女老师把句子重复一遍.

M: There are two more examinations that Peter has to pass.

F: There are two more examinations that Peter has to pass.

M: There are three more papers that Mary has to write.

F: There are three more papers that Mary has to write.

M: Most students that graduate this year will attend the graduation ceremony.

F: Most students that graduate this year will attend the graduation ceremony.

M: The students that wear long robes and caps with square tops are graduating.

F: The students that wear long robes and caps with square tops are graduating.

三.WHICH

刚才那些句子里用来修饰的短句都是用that 开头的, that 可以用来指人或是东西. 但是在专门指东西或事情的时候可以用 which, w-h-i-c-h, which 代替. The robe that they gave Mary is too long. 这句话也可以这样说: The robe which they gave Mary is too long.

下面我们作一组练习, 学学这种句子, 练习的作法是由老师用 "什么" what 提出一个问句, 比方 "什么是文凭?" What is a diploma? 然后老师念一个用 which开头的短句修饰的词, 比方 "高中毕业生得到的文件" The paper which a high school graduate receives, 所以刚才那个问题的答案就是: "文凭是高中毕业生得到的文件." A diploma is the paper which a high school graduate receives. 在这组练习里, 你可以学习到怎么用英文来解释什么是 "学位" degree, d-e-g-r-e-e, degree, 什么是 "毕业舞会" prom, p-r-o-m, prom 等等. 现在请你注意听老师问问题, 并且在学生回答问题的时候也一起回答.

M: What is a graduation robe?

M: the robe which the graduates wear

F: A graduation robe is the robe which the graduates wear.

M: What is a graduation ceremony?

M: a ceremony which the graduates attend

F: A graduation ceremony is a ceremony which the graduates attend.

M: What is a diploma?

M: the paper which a high school graduate receives

F: A diploma is the paper which a high school graduate receives.

M: What is a degree?

M: the paper which a university or college graduate receives

F: A degree is the paper which a university or college graduate receives.

M: What is a prom?

M: the dance which the graduates go to

F: A prom is the dance which the graduates go to.

四.WHO

下面我们来学习用 who, w-h-o, who 作刚才那种短句, 比方有一句话: "老师就是教书的人" A teacher is a person who teaches. 在这句话里, who 指的就是"人" person p-e-r-s-o-n, person.下面我们来作一组练习,首先由老师提出一个疑问句. 比方: "谁将在典礼上致辞?" Who will give a speech at the ceremony? 接着老师念出一个用 who 开头的短句修饰的词. 比方: "参加毕业典礼的官员们" The officials who attend the graduation ceremony. 所以刚才那个问题的答案就是: "参加毕业典礼的官员们将在典礼上致辞." The officials who attend the graduation ceremony will give a speech at the ceremony. 现在请你注意听老师问问题, 并且在学生回答问题的时候也一起回答.

M: Who will wear long robes and caps with square tops?

M: the students who graduate

F: The students who graduate will wear long robes and caps with square tops.

M: Who will attend the graduation ceremony?

M: the students who graduate

F: The students who graduate will attend the graduation ceremony.

M: Who will receive a diploma?

M: the students who graduate from high schools

F: The students who graduate from high schools will receive a diploma.

M: Who will receive a degree?

M: the students who graduate from universities or colleges

F: The students who graduate from universities or colleges will receive a degree.

M: Who will make a speech at the ceremony?

M: the graduate who has the best record in school

F: The graduate who has the best record in school will make a speech at the ceremony.

五.从句修饰宾语

现在我们再来学习用短句. 在刚才作的几组练习里用的短句都是用来修饰主语的. 下面我们要用这种短句来修饰宾语. 比方有一句话: "父母和朋友向毕业的学生祝贺. "Parents and friends congratulated the students who graduated. 在这句话里, 短句 who graduated 修饰句子里的宾语 the students.下面我们来作一组练习把两句简单的话合并成用短句修饰宾语的句子. 练习的作法是这样的: 老师先念一个句子 "彼得跟学生闲谈" Peter chatted with the students, 接着老师又念第二个句子 "典礼中坐在他附近的学生" The students sat near him at the ceremony.请你用 who 把第二个句子改为短句, 用来修饰第一句话里的 "学生", 所以答案就是 Peter chatted with the students who sat near him at the ceremony. 现在我们开始作练习, 每作完一句还是请你听正确答案.

M: Peter talked to the student.

M: The student gave a speech at the graduation ceremony.

F: Peter talked to the student who gave a speech at the graduation ceremony.

M: Peter chatted with the students.

M: The students sat near him at the ceremony.

F: Peter chatted with the students who sat near him at the ceremony.

M: Parents and friends congratulated the students.

M: The students graduated.

F: Parents and friends congratulated the students who graduated.

M: Students met their friends and relatives.

M: Their friends and relatives came to the graduation ceremony.

F: Students met their friends and relatives who came to the graduation ceremony.

M: The graduates took pictures of their friends.

M: Their friends were in the same classes.

F: The graduates took pictures of their friends who were in the same classes.

下面我们用同样的方式练习怎么用以 which 开头的短句来形容一个句子的宾语, 比方老师说: "学生听演讲" Students listened to the speech. 接着老师又说:"校长在典礼中演讲" The principal gave a speech at the ceremony. 你就把第二句话改成短句来修饰第一句话里的宾语 " 演讲", 所以正确答案就是 Students listened to the speech which the principal gave at the ceremony. 好, 现在我们开始作练习, 每作完一句就请你听正确答案.

M: Mary didn't like the robe.

M: She got the robe for the graduation ceremony.

F: Mary didn't like the robe which she got for the graduation ceremony.

M: Mary wore the robe.

M: She traded the robe with Peter.

F: Mary wore the robe which she traded with Peter.

M: Students listened to the speech.

M: The principal gave a speech at the ceremony.

F: Students listened to the speech which the principal gave at the ceremony.

M: Students were very happy to receive the diplomas.

M: They earned the diplomas.

F: Students were very happy to receive the diplomas which they earned.

M: Students showed each other the pictures.

M: They took the pictures.

F: Students showed each other the pictures which they took.

M: Students danced to the music.

M: The band played music at the prom.

F: Students danced to the music which the band played at the prom.

六.听短文回答问题

今天我们要听的文章是谈到美国中学和大学的毕业典礼. 文章里许多句子都是我们刚才练习过的, 比方哪些学生可以毕业, 在典礼上谁致辞, 典礼之后举行毕业舞会, 毕业典礼是令人回味的活动等等.现在请你注意听.

In American high schools and colleges, the last day of the school year is graduation day. The students who finish their last year in the school will graduate. The graduation ceremony is often in the school gymnasium. The people who come to watch the graduation are teachers, parents and friends of the graduates. Those students who will graduate will wear long robes and caps with square tops. The graduate who has the best record in school will make a speech. The school principal and other officials will also make speeches. Then each graduate will receive a piece of paper which has his name and the name of the school. The paper which the students receive in high school is a diploma. The paper which the students receive in college is a degree. After the ceremony, students often chat with their teachers, friends and relatives who come to congratulate them. They take pictures of each other. They will show each other these pictures a few nights later at the graduation prom. Graduation is a memorable event.

刚才那段文章你听懂了吗? 等一会儿我会请英文老师再用慢速度念一遍给你听. 现在我们先来听今天测验的三个问题.

第一个问题是:

M: Who attends the graduation ceremony?

第二个问题是:

M: What do graduates do at the ceremony?

第三个问题是:

M: What do students often do after the ceremony?

现在我们再听英文老师用慢速度把整段文章念一遍.

In American high schools and colleges, the last day of the school year is graduation day. The students who finish their last year in the school will graduate. The graduation ceremony is often in the school gymnasium. The people who come to watch the graduation are teachers, parents and friends of the graduates. Those students who will graduate will wear long robes and caps with square tops. The graduate who has the best record in school will make a speech. The school principal and other officials will also make speeches. Then each graduate will receive a piece of paper which has his name and the name of the school. The paper which the students receive in high school is a diploma. The paper which the students receive in college is a degree. After the ceremony, students often chat with their teachers, friends and relatives who come to congratulate them. They take pictures of each other. They will show each other these pictures a few nights later at the graduation prom. Graduation is a memorable event.

现在请你回答今天测验的三个问题, 回答之后请你听老师念正确答案.

第一个问题是:

M: Who attends the graduation ceremony?

F: The school principal, officials,the graduates, their teachers, parents and friends attend the graduation ceremony.

第二个问题是:

M: What do graduates do at the ceremony?

F: They listen to speeches, and they receive diplomas or degrees.

第三个问题是:

M: What do students often do after the ceremony?

F: They chat with their teachers, friends and relatives.They also take pictures of each other.